Ontwerpen op levensduurprestatie en betrouwbaarheid
Advanced engineering design
Lifetime performance and reliability

Dit boek bevat 472 pagina's in  full color en meer dan 250 illustraties, 300 formules, 100 case studies en ontwerp voorbeelden, 50 easy calculators en 50 foto's van gefaalde machine onderdelen.
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 Over het boek:


In het eerste deel van het boek wordt de basis gelegd voor "Ontwerpen op levensduurprestatie en betrouwbaarheid", inclusief ontwerp procedures om de machine betrouwbaarheid te bepalen en te verbeteren, waarschijnlijkheidsbenadering, faalanalyse, vermoeiingssterkte, statische en dynamische belastbaarheid van geconcentreerde contacten, wrijvingsverschijnselen, slijtage mechanismen, smeermiddel en materiaal selectie. Bovenstaande onderwerpen worden toegepast op ontwerpberekeningen aan diverse dynamisch belaste onderdelen in machines.

Het tweede deel betreft "Ontwerpen van hoge precisie en hoge betrouwbaarheid systemen". De belangrijkste componenten in dergelijke systemen zijn de actuator met controller, de lagers / lineair geleidingen en het frame. De ontwerper wordt inzicht gegeven in de prestaties van deelsystemen in relatie met de systeem specificatie, inclusief het ontwerpen van hydrodynamische lagers en geleidingen, dynamische afdichtsystemen, luchtlagers, magnetische lagers en elastische scharnieren.

Solutions Manual

Een uitgebreide, meer dan 70 bladzijden, digitale bundel met opgaven en uitwerkingen is beschikbaar gemaakt om te downloaden. Deze opgaven zijn per hoofdstuk gerangschikt en zeer geschikt voor zelfstudie maar ook om snel toe te kunnen passen in de ingenieurs praktijk. Wanneer je het boek hebt kan je deze solutions manual gratis downloaden via de www.engineering-abc.com

Komt er ook een Nederlandse versie?

Het boek is in eenvoudig Engels geschreven. Er is gekozen voor een full color boek. Hierdoor worden de vele foto's en vooral ook de figuren van spanningsconcentraties, drukverdelingen en dergelijke veel duidelijker. De hoge initiële drukkosten van full color zijn moeilijk voor een kleine Nederlandstalige oplage op te brengen terwijl een zwart wit druk kwalitatief veel minder is. Om deze reden wordt voorlopig afgezien van een Nederlandse versie van het boek.

Wat is nieuw?

De meeste hoofdstukken zijn bijgewerkt en uitgewerkt. Chapter 1: Reliability engineering met systems architecting en error budgeting, Chapter 2: Physics of failure met case studies van failure mechanisms en root cause analysis, Chapter 3: Interpretatie van breukvlakken, spannings corrosie, pitting corrosie, spleet corrosie, waterstof brosheid, vermoeiing volgens Eurocode standaard, enz.

De nieuwe versie van het boek wordt gebruikt in de tribologie cursus georganiseerd door het Mikrocentrum en de cursus Physics of Failure georganiseerd door Holland Innovative. De tribologie cursus is door de Dutch Society of Precision Engineering gecertificeerd. Bij het behalen van deze cursus in combinatie met nog enkele aanvullingen geeft recht op de titel "Certified Precision Engineer".
 

Contents
Contents

Chapter 1:   Reliability engineering
Chapter 2:   Physics of Failure
Chapter 3:   Fatigue failure prediction and prevention
Chapter 4:   Rolling contact phenomena
Chapter 5:   Friction phenomena in mechanical systems
Chapter 6:   Wear mechanisms
Chapter 7:   Material selection a systematic approach
Chapter 8:   Lubricant selection and lubrication management
Chapter 9:   Design of hydrodynamic bearings and sliders
Chapter 10:  Performance and selection of sealing systems
Chapter 11:  Design of hydrostatic bearings
Chapter 12:  Design of aerostatic bearings
Chapter 13:  Design of flexure based mechanisms
Chapter 14:  Machine Design Calculations Reference Guide
 
ADVANCED ENGINEERING DESIGN
LIFETIME PERFORMANCE AND RELIABILITY
CONTENTSChapter 1: Reliability engineering... 1

1.1 DESIGN FOR LIFETIME PERFORMANCE AND RELIABILITY 2
1.1.1 Introduction 2
1.1.2 History 5
1.1.3 Trends in mechanical engineering design 7
1.1.4 Innovative solutions 9

1.2 RELIABILITY ENGINEERING 10
1.2.1 Component reliability 10
1.2.3 System reliability 16

1.3 SYSTEMS ENGINEERING 21
1.3.1 Precision, accuracy and resolution 22
1.3.2 Errors in positioning 23
1.3.3 How to improve the overall system accuracy 25
1.3.4 Running accuracy 33
1.3.5 High Tech Systems 36

CONTENTSChapter 2: Physics of Failure... 39

2.1 DESIGN FOR RELIABILITY 40
2.1.1 Physics of Failures 40
2.1.2 Failure analysis techniques and procedure 41
2.1.3 Root Cause Failure analysis 42

2.2 CLASSIFICATION OF FAILURE MECHANISMS 43
2.2.1 How rolling bearings fail 43
2.2.2 How gears Fail 51

2.3 ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS CASE STUDIES 58
2.3.1 Failed cam with bucket follower 58
2.3.2 Failed camshaft with roller follower 59
2.3.3 Failed railway wheel system 60
2.3.4 Failed crane rail 61
2.3.5 Failed journal bearings of rocker arms 62

2.4 CORRECTIVE ACTIONS TO PREVENT FAILURE 63
2.4.1 Dynamic load capacity of plain bearings 63
2.4.2 Power transfer of an interference fit 64

CONTENTSChapter 3: Fatigue failure prediction and prevention 67

3.1 INTERPRETATION OF FRACTURE SURFACES 68
3.1.1 Shear fracture and tensile fracture 68
3.1.2 Fatigue fracture 71
3.1.3 Corrosion and corrosion fatigue 75

3.2 PREDICTION OF THE FATIGUE STRENGTH
78
3.2.1 Stress-life relationship 78
3.2.2 Estimating the fatigue strength 80

3.3 FATIGUE RESISTANT DESIGN 83
3.3.1 Design of dynamically loaded drive shafts 84
3.3.2 Design of dynamically loaded bolted joints 89
3.3.3 Design of dynamically loaded welded structures (Eurocode 3 EN 1993-1-9) 96

CONTENTSChapter 4: Rolling contact phenomena... 101

4.1 STATIC AND DYNAMIC LOAD RATING 102
4.1.1 Nominal point contact 103
4.1.2 Elliptic contact 108
4.1.3 Nominal line contact 110
4.1.4 Contact conformity 111
4.1.5 Geometrical stress concentrations 112
4.1.6 Rolling with traction 112
4.1.7 Permissible contact pressure 114

4.2 ROLLING RESISTANCE 116
4.2.1 Micro slip 116
4.2.2 Plastic deformation 117
4.2.3 Hysteresis losses 117
4.2.3 Spinning 119
4.2.4 Secondary friction losses and running-in conditions 121

4.3 ELASTOHYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION 122
4.3.1 EHL-line contact 123
4.3.2 EHL-point contact 125

4.4 LOAD RATING OF MACHINE ELEMENTS 128
4.4.1 Static and dynamic load ratings of rolling bearings 128
4.4.2 Static and dynamic load rating of linear rail guides 130
4.4.3 Static and dynamic load rating of ball screws 132
4.4.4 Surface durability of gears 133
4.4.5 Dynamic load rating of traction drive mechanisms 138

CONTENTSChapter 5: Friction phenomena in mechanical systems... 143

5.1 REAL CONTACT AREA 144
5.1.1 Surface Roughness 144
5.1.2 Ratio of real contact area and nominal contact area 148
5.1.3 Real contact area versus friction 150

5.2 FUNDAMENTALS OF FRICTION 150
5.2.1 Ploughing 151
5.2.2 Adhesion 152

5.3 CLASSICAL FRICTION LAWS 157
5.3.1 Effect of the nominal contact area 157
5.3.2 Effect of the normal load 157
5.3.3 Effect of sliding velocity 158
5.3.4 Effect of temperature 158
5.3.5 Effect of surface roughness 158

5.4 STICK SLIP, JAMMING, SIDE SLIP AND JOINT SLIPPAGE 159
5.4.1 Stick slip 159
5.4.2 Jamming 161
5.4.3 Side-slip to eliminate friction 162
5.4.4 Joint Slippage 163
5.4.5 Hysteresis 164

5.5 FRICTIONAL HEATING AND THERMAL FAILURE 165
5.5.1 Nominal contact temperature 166
5.5.2 Flash temperature 174

5.6 MEASURING FRICTION 176
5.6.1 Manually 176
5.6.2 Motorised 178

CONTENTSChapter 6: Wear mechanisms179

6.1 TWO-BODY WEAR MECHANISMS 180
6.1.1 Abrasive wear 181
6.1.2 Adhesive wear 182
6.1.3 Corrosive wear 183
6.1.4 Surface fatigue 185

6.2 SINGLE-BODY WEAR MECHANISMS 187
6.2.1 Gas erosion 187
6.2.2 Liquid impingement erosion 187
6.2.3 Cavitation erosion 187
6.2.4 Particle erosion 188
6.2.5 Electrical / spark erosion 188

6.3 CONTACT CONDITIONS 189
6.3.1 Contact conformity 189
6.3.2 Stationary contact 189
6.3.3 Degree of overlap 189
6.3.4 Contact temperature 190
6.4 WEAR RATE 190
6.4.1 Running-in 190
6.4.2 Calculation of wear rate 191
6.4.3 Classification of the specific wear rate 192

6.5 SELECTING OR CONSTRUCTING TEST APPARATUS 199
6.5.1 Pin-on-disc / Pin-on-ring 200
6.5.2 Pin-on-flat / ball-on-flat 201
6.5.3 Two disk 201

6.6 STANDARDS FOR MEASURING FRICTION AND WEAR 202
6.6.1 Specimen preparation 202
6.6.2 Experiment 203
6.6.3 Reporting 203
6.6.4 Reproducibility 203

CONTENTSChapter 7: Material selection a systematic approach 205

7.1 MATERIALS FOR SLIDE SURFACES 206
7.1.1 Selection criteria for metals 206
7.1.2 Selection criteria for polymers 210
7.1.3 Selection criteria for technical ceramics 224

7.2 COATINGS AND SURFACE TREATMENTS 226
7.2.1 Where surface treatments are applied 227
7.2.2 Classification of surface treatments 227
7.2.3 Surface treatment techniques 228

CONTENTSChapter 8: Lubricant selection and lubrication management

8.1 LUBRICATION REGIMES 236
8.1.1 Stribeck curve 237
8.1.2 Transition diagram 239

8.2 LUBRICANTS 240
8.2.1 Physical properties 240
8.2.2 Additives 246
8.2.3 Oil supplements 247
8.2.4 Trends in engine and industrial lubrication 249

8.3 TYPES OF LUBRICANTS AND LUBRICANT SELECTION 250
8.3.1 Base oils 250
8.3.2 Biolubricants 252
8.3.3 Food grade lubricants 253
8.3.4 Lubricants for thermoplastics, thermosets and elastomers 254
8.3.5 Greases 255
8.3.6 Solid lubricants 257
8.3.7 Lubricant selections for specific applications 260

8.4 LUBRICATION MANAGEMENT 262
8.4.1 Grease versus oil lubrication 262
8.4.2 Oil lubrication systems 262
8.4.3 Engine lubrication system 263

8.5 PROACTIVE MAINTENANCE AND OIL ANALYSIS 264
8.5.1 Maintenance engineering 264
8.5.2 Proactive maintenance 264
8.5.3 Causes of lubricant deterioration and their prevention 266
8.5.4 Chemical and physical oil analysis 266
8.5.5 Wear particle analysis 268

CONTENTSChapter 9: Design of hydrodynamic bearings and sliders

9.1 HYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION 272
9.1.1 Reynolds equation 273
9.1.2 Effective surface velocity 277
9.1.3 Film thickness in journal bearings and concentrated contacts 279
9.1.4 Viscous shear 280

9.2 SLIDER BEARINGS 282
9.2.1 Converging wedge 282
9.2.2 Michell bearing 284
9.2.3 Rayleigh step bearing 287
9.2.4 Tapered land pad 290
9.2.5 Curved pad 292

9.3 PLAIN JOURNAL BEARINGS 293
9.3.1 Bearing performance and design 293
9.3.2 Design optimization load versus bearing clearance 301
9.3.3 Design optimization friction versus film thickness 303
9.3.4 Bearings in turbo machinery 304

9.4 VISCOUS DAMPING AND DYNAMIC RESPONSE 305
9.4.1 Dashpot 305
9.4.2 Band on flat 310
9.4.3 Circular disk on flat 312
9.4.4 Circular ring on flat 313
9.4.5 Cylinder on flat 313
9.4.6 Squeeze film dampers 314
9.4.7 Shock loaded journal bearings 316
9.4.8 Dynamically loaded slider bearings 318
9.4.9 Piston ring/liner film development 320
9.4.10 Dynamically loaded journal bearings 321

9.5 SPIRAL GROOVE BEARINGS 323
9.5.1 Thrust bearings 323
9.5.2 Journal bearings 327
9.4.10 Hybrid bearings in high speed rotary applications 328

CONTENTSChapter 10: Performance and selection of sealing systems

10.1 SEALING SYSTEMS 332
10.1.1 Classification 332
10.1.2 Operating limits 332

10.2 ROTARY SEALS 333
10.2.1 Lip seals, V-rings and O-rings 333
10.2.2 Mechanical face seals 335
10.2.3 Seal face patterns 337
10.2.4 Gap seals 338
10.2.5 Labyrinth seals 339
10.2.6 Magnetic fluid seals 340
10.2.7 Air barrier seals 341

10.3 RECIPROCATING SEALS 342
10.3.1 Reciprocating lip-seals in hydraulics 342
10.3.2 Reciprocating lip-seals in pneumatics 344
10.3.3 Piston guide rings 346
10.3.4 O-rings in reciprocating applications 347
10.3.5 Piston ring-seals in engines 349

CONTENTSChapter 11: Design of hydrostatic bearings 351

11.1 BASIC METHODS OF OPERATION 352
11.2.1 Methods to obtain bearing stiffness 353
11.2.2 Advantages and limitations of pressurised fluid bearings 354

11.2 DESIGN OF HYDROSTATIC BEARINGS 355
11.2.1 Basic construction elements 355
11.2.2 Hydrostatic thrust bearings with shallow pocket 360
11.2.3 Hydrostatic thrust bearings with tapered film 361
11.2.4 Hydrostatic thrust bearings with capillary restrictor 361
11.2.5 Hydrostatic thrust bearings with orifice restrictor 366
11.2.6 Hydrostatic preloaded thrust bearings 369
11.2.7 Hydrostatic journal bearings with external restrictors 371
11.2.8 Hydrostatic journal bearings with shallow pockets 375

CONTENTSChapter 12: Design of EP air bearings 378

12.1 BASIC METHODS OF OPERATION 379
12.1.1 Methods to obtain bearing stiffness 380
12.1.2 Advantages and limitations of pressurised gas bearings 382
12.1.3 Structural considerations and kinematics 383
12.2 DESIGN OF E.P. AIR BEARINGS 386
12.2.1 Basic construction elements 386
12.2.2 Design of air bearings with orifice restrictor 390
12.2.3 Design of air bearings with a series annular orifice restrictors 392
12.2.4 Design of air bearings with a series simple orifice restrictors 393
12.2.5 Design of air bearings with partial porous surface 394
12.2.6 Design of shallow pocket air bearings 395
12.2.7 Design of partially grooved air bearings 396
12.2.8 Design of taper and taper-land air bearings 397
12.2.9 Design of journal bearings with porous ring restrictor 398
12.2.10 Design of journal bearings with two porous rings 400
12.2.11 Design of partially grooved journal bearings 401

CONTENTSChapter 13: Design of flexure mechanisms 465

13.1 BASIC DESIGN PRINCIPLES AND COMPONENTS 404
13.1.1 Design considerations 404
13.1.2 Basic construction elements 408
13.1.3 Dynamic load excitation response 410
13.1.4 Design of hole hinges 412
13.1.5 Micro actuators 414

13.2 DIVERSE APPLICATIONS 415
13.2.1 Flexure cross hinge 415
13.2.2 Piezo parallel guiding with integrated motion amplifier 416
13.2.3 Piezo nano precision XY-parallel mechanism 417
13.2.4 Flexible shaft couplings 418

CONTENTSChapter 14: Machine Design Calculations Reference Guide 419

14.1 MACHINE DESIGN REFERENCE GUIDE 420
14.1.1 Metric thread, fasteners 420
14.1.2 Power screws 423
14.1.3 Interference fits 425
14.1.4 Cone type shaft hub connections 429
14.1.5 Slide bearings 430
14.1.6 Variable transmission belt drives 434

14.2 BASIC EQUATIONS AND DATA TABLES 437
14.2.1 Linear elasticity 437
14.2.2 Deflections and slopes of uniform cantilever beams 438
14.2.3 Moments of inertia Ix, Iy and Ip 438
14.2.4 Approximate formulae for spring stiffness 439
14.2.5 Buckling limit of compression loaded beams 440
14.2.6 Approximate design functions S-shaped beams 440
14.2.7 Springs in series versus parallel 441
14.2.8 Spring mass system / vibrations 441
14.2.9 Moments of Inertia 442
14.2.10 Work, energy and power 442
14.2.11 ISO Metric screw threads 443
14.2.12 ISO Tolerances for holes and shafts 444
14.2.13 Approximate coefficients of friction 445
14.2.14 Drag coefficients in air Cw 446
14.2.15 Physical properties of solids 446
14.2.16 Physical properties of liquids 447
14.2.17 Physical properties of gasses 447
14.2.18 Physical properties of polymers 447
14.2.19 Mechanical properties of structural steel 448
14.2.20 Mechanical properties of non-alloy quality steel (QT) 448
14.2.21 Mechanical properties of non-alloy quality steel (Normalized) 448
14.2.22 Mechanical properties of stainless steels 449
14.2.23 Mechanical properties of alloyed steels 449
14.2.24 Mechanical properties of aluminium alloys 450
14.2.25 Mechanical properties of cast iron 450
14.2.26 Mechanical properties of spring steel 450
14.2.27 Mechanical properties of bearing bronze 450
14.2.28 Conversion factors to SI Units 451

Index

A

Abbé error 33
Abbott-Firestone curve 146
Abrasive wear 46, 181
Additives 246
Adhesion 152
Adhesive wear 47, 182
Aerostatic bearings 378
Aerostatic instability 379
Aftermarket additives 247
Air barrier seals 341
Allowable stress number 133
Aluminium alloys 407
Aluminium-soap greases 255
Amontons-Coulomb law 5
Amorphous polymers 212
Angular contact ball bearings 119
Annular orifices 380
Anti-foam additives 247
Anti-friction coatings 259
Anti-oxidant 246
Anti-wear additives 246
Aquaplaning 236
Archard’s equation 191
Assembly clearance 430
Attitude angle 293
Austenitic stainless steels 184

B

Babbitts 208
Back-to-back 32, 36
Backlash 29, 31, 164
Balance ratio 336
Ball screws 132
Ball-on-flat 201
Barus 245
Basic rating life 18
Bath lubrication 262
Bathtub failure 11
Bearing number 295
Bearing stiffness 293
Beauchamp Tower 5, 273
belt drives 434
Bending stiffness 409
Bernoulli 386
Bernoulli equation 356
Bingham-type 256
Biolubricants 252
Biomaterial 218
Bleeding 256
Blok 300
Bolt failure 89
bolt joint 421
Bolted assemblies 90
Bolzmann integrals 215
Boriding 229
Boron Nitride 258
Boundary Lubrication 236
Boundary lubrication additives 246
Brinell hardness 106
Brinelling 185
brittle materials 114
Bronzes 208
burnishing 147

C

Calcium-soap greases 255
Cantilever loading 33
Capillary restrictor 356, 386
Carburising 229
Case crushing 56
Cavitation 293
Cavitation algorithm 350
Cavitation erosion 187
Chemical and physical oil analysis 266
Chemical Vapour Deposition 231
Circulation lubrication 262
Cladding 231
Classic friction laws 157
Cleanliness 269
Closed pocket textures 350
Closed system 190
Cloud Point 240
Coatings 226
Cogging 38
Cold welding 183
Cold-welding 180
Compatibility 154
Compatibility: 343
Complex soap greases 255
Compliant mechanisms 404
Component reliability 10
Compounded oils 251
Compressibility 245, 277
Compression ring 349
Concentrated contacts 102
Condition monitoring 265
Cone type connection 429
Coning 336
Consistency 256
Contact angle 31, 119
Contact conditions 189
Contact conformity 111, 189
contact mechanics 101
Contact temperature 190
Corrosion inhibitors 247
Corrosive wear 183
Couette film thickness 282
Couette flow 275
Couette flow film thickness 276
Coulombs friction laws 5
Crack formation 185
Creep response 214
Critical shear stress 114
Critical speed 329
Cross spring hinge 406
Crystallinity 212
Cumulative damage 81
Current leakage 49
Curved pad 292
Cylinder liner 349
Cylinder Viscometer 241

D

Damage analysis 41
Damping 160, 305
Dashpot 305
Data sheet 203
Deflection curve 408
Degree of overlap 189
Delamination 185
Demulsifiers 247
Design for Environment 9
Design For Reliability (DFA) 83
Detergents 247
Diamond Like Carbon coatings 232
Differential particle counting 269
Dispersancy 266
Dispersants 247
Dropping point 256
Dynamic error budgeting 24
Dynamic load excitation response 410
Dynamic load rating 128
Dynamic response 305
Dynamic seals 331
Dynamic viscosity 241
d’Arcy law 386

E

E.P. bearings 351
E.P. gas bearings 378
Eccentric piston 310
Eccentricity locus 293
Eccentricity ratio 279
Effective contact radius 111
Effective E modulus 103
Effective friction coefficient 434
Effective heat conduction length 171
Effective heat diffusion length 169
Effective radius 103
Effective surface velocity 277
EHL-line contact 123
EHL-point contact 125
Elastic recovery 153
Elastic shakedown 115
Elasto Hydrodynamic Lubrication 236
Electro-thermal actuators 414
Electroless nickel 230
Elliptic contact 108
Endurance limit 79, 80
Engine friction losses 248
Engine lubrication system 263
Engine oils 241
Engineering ceramics 224
Engineering design 9
Engineering plastics 217
Environmental design 9
Environmental Standards 252
EP-additives 130, 246
EPDM 343
Erosion 187
Error budgeting 24
Error mapping 24
Euler definition 277
Excessive voltage 48

F

Face-to-face 32, 36
Fading 165
Failure analysis 41
Failure distribution functions 11
Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) 20
False brinelling 48, 185
Fastener assembly methods 93
Fatigue 3
Fatigue breakage 57
Fatigue corrosion 73
Fatigue crack development 71
Fatigue failure 45
Fatigue life 115
Fatigue strength 78, 115
Fatty acids 251
Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) 19, 20
Fillet radius 85
Film thickness in journal bearings 279
Finishing techniques 147
Fire point 266
Fissures and cracks 56
Flake pitting 55
Flaking 45, 180
Flash point 266
Flash temperature 174
Flexure hinges 404
Flexure mechanisms 403
Floating seal 347
Flow-restrictor 352
Fluorcarbon Rubber 343
Food grade lubricants 253
Forced circulation lubrication 263
Fracture 50
Fretting corrosion 47, 184, 426
Fretting wear 184
Friction coefficients 207, 220, 232, 424
Friction coefficients - polymers 221
friction laws 157
Friction modifiers 246
Frictional heating 165
Fuel economy benefit 244

G

Galling 183
Galvanic coatings 230
Gap seals 338
Gas bearings 378
Gas erosion 187
Gas seals 338
Gear design 137
Gear oils 260
General purpose oils 260
General purpose plastics 216
Generalised Kelvin model 216
Generalized Maxwell model 216
Glass transition temperature 212
Graphite 258
Grease characteristics 255
Grease lubrication 262
Greases 255
Grey staining 55
Grinding 180
Guide elements 342

H

Half-omega whirl 293
Hard anodising 230
Hard chromium 230
Hard wearing 192
Hard-facing 231
Hardness conversion 108
Hardness scales and conversion 106
Hazard rate 11
Heathcote slip: 116
Herringbone pattern 326
Herschel-Bulkley model 256
Hertzian contact stresses 104
Hertzian contacts 102
High cycle fatigue HCF 78
High performance plastics 218
High pressure viscosity 245
High shear viscosity 243
Hole hinges 405
Honing 147
Hooke's law 409
HP/HVOF 230
Hybrid bearing systems 328
Hybrid bearings 354
Hydraulic fluids 261
Hydraulic oils 261
Hydropad seals 337
Hydrostatic bearings 351
Hysteresis 29, 117, 404

I

Impedance method 318
Impulse 313
Impulse force 311
Impulse method 318
Indents from debris 49
Induction hardening 228
Industrial lubrication 249
Inertia 442
Infant mortality 11
Inherent orifices 380
Inherent reliability 11
Initial pitting 55
Interference fits 32, 159, 163, 425
Internal clearance 31
Iron core linear motor 37
Ironless linear motor 38

J

Jamming 161
Joint slippage 163
Joint stiffness factor 92
Journal bearings 293

K

Kelvin model 214
Key ways 87
Kingsbury 284
Kolsterising 230

L

Labyrinth gas seals 340
Labyrinth seals 339
Lame’s equation 425
Lapping 147
Laser texturing 349
Lateral Traction 113
Lead babbitts 208
Lead screw 27
Leave springs 404
Leonardo Da Vinci 5
Life expectancy 13
Limiting shear stress 140
Limiting speed 129
Line contact 110
Liquid impingement erosion 187
Lithium-soap greases 255
Load patterns 43
Locating bearing 32, 84
Locus 293
Lord Rayleigh 287
Low cycle fatigue LCF 78
Lubricant deterioration 266
Lubricant life additives 246
Lubricant selection 240, 250
Lubricant selections 260
Lubricant viscosity 240
Lubricants for thermoplastics 254
Lubrication management 262
Lubrication transitions 238
Lubricity 246


 

M

Machine monitoring 264
Magnetic fluid seals 340
Magnetic fluids 340
Magnets 341
Maintenance engineering 264
Martensitic stainless steel 184
Material selection 205
Maximum Hertzian contact load 104
Maximum tightening torque 421
Maxwell model 215
Measuring friction 176
Mechanical face seals 335
Melting temperature 213
Metallurgical compatibility 153
Michell bearing 284
Micro actuators 414
Micro elastohydrodynamic lubrication 350
Micro pitting 55
Micro slip 116
Micro welding 165
Micro-EHL 237
Micro-peening 231
Mineral oils 250
Miner’s rule 82
Misalignment 33
Mixed Lubrication 236
Mobility method 318
Moisture corrosion 48
Molybdenum Disulfide, MoS2 258
Moment of inertia 442
Monolithic flexure hinges 415
mutual solubility 153

N

Naphthenic oils 250
Newtonian fluids 241
Nitriding 229
Nitrocarburising 229
Nitrotec process 229
NLGI consistency number 256
Nominal contact area 144
Nominal contact temperature 166
Non-Newtonian models 256
Non-stationary contact 189
Normal distribution 13
Normal failure distribution 13
Normalised impulse force 313
Notched flexure hinges 406

O

O-rings 335, 347
Ocvirck bearing 298
Oil analysis 265
Oil control ring 349
Oil lubrication 262
Oil lubrication systems 262
Oil monitoring 265
Oil supplements 247
Open system 189
Operating clearance 430
Operational clearance 31
Operational reliability 11
Organo-clay thickener 255
Orifice restrictor 356
Orifices 386
Osborne Reynolds 5, 273
Outgassing 218
Overload breakage 56
Oxidation 266, 267
Oxidative wear 180
Oxide layer 155
Oxidised abrasive 184

P

Pack-aluminising 230
Pack-chromizing 229
Palmgren-Miner 6
Palmgren-Miner rule 82
Paraffinic oils 250
Partial porous surface 381
Particle counter device 269
Particle erosion 188
Peclet Number 169
Periodic load 306
Periodical maintenance 264
Petroleum 250
Phosphate esters 251
Physical Vapour Deposition 231
Piezoelectric actuators 414
Pin-on-disk 200
Pin-on-flat 201
Pin-on-ring 200
Piston rings 320, 349
Piston seals 342
Piston-cylinder lubrication 263
pitch point 135
Pitting 180
Plasma CVD 232
Plastic - plastic combinations 220
Plasticity index 148
Plate-shaped particles 185
Ploughing 151, 180
Pneumatic hammer 379
Point contact 103
Poisseuille flow 275
Polishing wear 180
Polyalkylene glycols 251
Polyalphaolefins 251
Polyisobutylenes 251
Polyurea grease 255
Porous surface 381, 386
Pour point 240
Power screws 423
Predictive Maintenance Management 264
Preload a bolt 422
Preloading 129
Pressure feed lubrication 263
Pressure spikes and micro pitting 186
Pressure-viscosity dependency 245
Pressurised fluid bearings 354
Probability Density Chart 10
Probability of failure 10
Progressive pitting 55
Prototype testing 199
PTFE 219, 259
PV-value 431

R

R&O additives 247
Rack & pinion 27
Ratcheting 115
Rayleigh step 287
Reference speed 129
Reliability 11
Reliability Engineering 10
Reliability factor 18
Relieve cut 85
Repeatability 203
Reporting 203
Reproducibility 203
Retaining rings 86
Reynolds boundary condition 297
Reynolds Equation 276
Reynolds slip 116, 117
Rheological properties 255
Risk Priority Number 20
Rockwell hardness 107
Rod seals 342
Roelands 245
Rolling resistance 116
Root Cause Analysis (RCA) 40, 42
Root Cause Failure Analysis 41
Rotary lip seal 333
Roughness 144
Running-in 190, 238

S

S-N Diagram 79
SAE Viscosity Grades 241
Sassenfeld and Walther 273, 300
Scoring 180
Scratching 53, 180
Screw efficiency 424
Screw spindle 424
Scuffing 180
Sealing systems 332
Sealing washers 339
Seizure 180, 183
Self-locking 424
Self-lubricating composites 260
Self-lubricating plastics 219
Semi-crystalline plastics 212
Service temperature 212
Servomotor 25
shakedown 115
Shallow pocket bearing 360
Shear modulus 438
Shear strength 71
Shear stress criterion 114
Shore hardness 107
Shot-peening 231
Shotpeening 187
Side-slip 162
Silicon oils 251
Single body wear 180, 187
Sintered metals 209
Slide bearings 430
Slip equation 434
Slip front 163
Slippage 163
Slot feeding 380
Slumpability 257
Smearing 180
Solid lubricants 257
Solidification 245
Solidification pressure 140
Sommerfeld 273
Sommerfeld boundary condition 296
Spalling 56, 180, 185
Specific wear rate 191
Specimen preparation 202
Spiral groove bearings 323
Splash lubrication 262
Spring balance 176
Spring materials 407
Squealing 113
Squeeze film dampers 314
Stability 327
Stainless steel 184, 431
Stainless steels 184
Standard deviation 13
Standard Solid model 216
Standardised tests 199
Starved lubrication 320, 350
Static load rating 105, 128
Stationary contact 189
Stationary heat flow 167
Stepped shafts 84
Stepper motor resolution 25
Stick- and slip zone 116
Stick-slip 30, 219
strain recovery 215
Strain response 214
Stress corrosion 73
Stress relaxation 215
Stress response 214
Stress-relaxation 215
Stribeck curve 122
Stribeck-curve 237
Subsurface fatigue 45
Subsurface initiated cracks 54
Sulphurizing 229
Super-finishing 147
Surface durability 133, 137
Surface energy 153
Surface Fatigue 185
Surface hardening 228
Surface roughness 144
Surface texturing 349
Surface topography 350
Surface treatments 227
Surface-initiated fatigue 46
Synthetic esters 251
Synthetic oils 250
System reliability 16

T

Tapered land pad 290
Technical ceramics 224
Test apparatus 200
Thermal expansion 33, 36
Thermal micro actuators 414
Thermo-chemical wear 180
Thermoplastics 211
Thermosets 223
Thin-film approach 275
Thread lubricants 421
Thread shear 423
Three-body wear 180
Thrust washer 201
Tightening torque 420
Tilted plane 176
Tooth bending strength 133, 137
Tooth breakage 56
Tooth end breakage 58
Torsional stiffness 409
Torsional stress 422
Total Acid Number (TAN) 267
Tower 5
Track roller guides 34
Traction drive mechanisms 139
Traction wheel drive 27
Transient heat flow 168
Transition diagram 239
Transmission torque 425
Trend monitoring 264
Trends in machine design 7
Tresca’s shear criterion 71, 104
Tresca’s yield criterion 114
Tribology 3
Tribometer 200
Turbine oil 261
Two disk tribometer 201
Two roller tribometer 201
Two-body wear 180

U,V,W

Ultimate tensile strength 71
V-ring seals 334
Variable amplitude loading 81
Vegetable oils 250
Vibrating rotor 294, 297
Vibration 129, 159
Vickers hardness 107
Virtual play 29
Visco-elastic behaviour 214
Viscosity classification 240
Viscosity Index 243
Viscosity index improvers 246
Viscosity of gases 382
Viscosity-pressure coefficient 127
Viscous damping 305
Viscous seal 341
Viscous shear 280
Viscous shearing 307
Von Mises equivalent stress 438
von Mises yield criterion 71, 114
Water 252
Wave seals 334
Wear coefficient 191
Wear measurement 203
Wear mechanisms 180
Wear mechanisms terminology 180
Wear particle analysis 268
Wear rate 190
Wedge effect 276
Weibull failure distribution 12
Welded structures 96
Whirl instability 293
Whirl modes 329
Wipers 342
Wire springs 404
Wohler diagram 79
Work-hardening factor 137
Worm-gear oils 261
Wrap angle 435

X,Y,Z

X and O arrangement 32, 36
Yield strength 70

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